Python is used extensively in finance, simulation, data science, statistical analysis, and in many other mathematically-intensive fields of work. The reason being is that Python makes working with numbers very easy.
Here are the most common arithmetic operators that allow you to manipulate numbers in Python.
You can add numbers in Python using the
x = 2 y = 5 total = x + y print(total)
You can subtract numbers in Python using the
x = 8 y = 3 total = x - y print(total)
You can multiply numbers in Python using the
x = 4 y = 6 total = x * y print(total)
You can divide numbers in Python using the
x = 54 y = 2 total = x / y print(total)
You can find the remainder of a division in Python using the
x = 64 y = 23 total = x % y print(total)
You can find the power of a number in Python using the
x = 2 y = 4 total = x ** y print(total)
Order of Operations
Order of Operations, also known as PEMDAS, is at play here, including with the use of parentheses.
x = (4 * 5) + 20 / 4 print(x)
Python Number Types
There are three kinds of numbers in Python, and they are as followed:
a = 1337 # int b = 13.37 # float c = 1337j # complex print(type(a)) print(type(b)) print(type(c))
<class 'int'> <class 'float'> <class 'complex'>
Integers are whole numbers like
532. They can be positive or negative, and they don't contain any decimals.
a = 423 b = 74 c = 87937595
These are all valid integers.
Floating point numbers are numbers containing a decimal, and can also be positive or negative. Here are some examples:
a = 1.53 b = 3.1 c = -95.23
Complex numbers are Python's representation of imaginary numbers, and they use a
j to represent the
a = 4+2j b = 9j c = -3j
Number Type Conversion
Python offers built-in methods to convert between these types using the
a = 5 # int b = 3.3 # float c = 7j # complex float = float(a) int = int(b) complex = complex(a) print(float) print(int) print(complex) print(type(float)) print(type(int)) print(type(complex))
5.0 3 (5+0j) <class 'float'> <class 'int'> <class 'complex'>
We mentioned before that Python is used heavily in any field that utilizes math. The built-in methods that Python provides is a large reason why. Here are some of the most common ones:
Get the absolute value of a number by using the
number = -34 print(abs(number))
floor() method to get the number passed in rounded down to the nearest integer if it is not already an integer.
import math number = 6.21 print(math.min(number))
ceil() method to get the number passed in rounded up to the next highest integer if it is not already an integer.
import math number = 6.21 print(math.ceil(number))
You can get the natural logarithms of a number using
import math number = 123 print(math.log(number))
Alternatively, you can also get the base-10 logarithm of a number using
import math number = 123 print(math.log10(number))
You can get the maximum of two or more numbers using the
number1 = 123 number2 = 456 number3 = 789 print(max(number1, number2, number3))
You can get the minimum of two or more numbers using the
number1 = 123 number2 = 456 number3 = 789 print(min(number1, number2, number3))
You can take the power of a number using
base = 3 exponent = 4 print(pow(base, exponent))
You can round off any number to the nearest integer using
number = 3.1459 places = 3 print(round(number, places))
You can take the square root of a number using
import math number = 81 print(math.sqrt(number))
Generating random numbers in Python is easy. There's a module named
random that has all we need. Call the
randrange() method to get a number in between two other numbers you define:
import random start = 1 end = 10 print(random.randrange(start, end))
One last cool to point out is that Python's
math module also comes with some predefined constants for us.
One of the constants that the
math module comes with is Euler's Number:
import math e = math.e print(e)
math module also comes with a value for Pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle relative to its diameter.
import math pi = math.pi print(pi)